Meat duck is an important part of China's waterfowl industry. China is the world's largest producer of meat ducks. The statistics of the national waterfowl industry technology system show that in 2017, the number of meat ducks in China was 2.742 billion, the output of duck meat was 6.17 million tons, and the output value reached 97.5 billion yuan. Traditional meat-raising ducks occupy more land, difficult disease prevention and control, high per capita cost, large manure pollution, and poor profitability. With the continuous expansion of farming scale, the necessity of industrial transformation has become more apparent.
In order to change the above situation, industry experts and enterprises have been actively exploring new breeding models of meat ducks in recent years. In order to get the duck out of the water and reduce the dependence of the duck on the water source, the breeding model was first upgraded from ground farming to online farming. This model was very common in farming-intensive areas such as Shandong and Jiangsu 10 years ago, although they are all online farming. However, the structure of the net bed and the materials used are various. The net frame has wooden boards, angle irons and brick-concrete structures, and the net surface has wooden boards, bamboo rafts and plastic nets. Since online farming has difficulties in clearing manure and ineffective environmental control, many companies have begun to study the use of fermentation beds to raise ducks. This model has been widely used in Beijing, Jiangsu, Hubei, Inner Mongolia and other places, and is currently in the implementation stage. Moreover, the Beijing Jinxing duck industry and the Inner Mongolia Sefeiya have achieved good results. The model has high efficiency, and the brooding stage can reach 17/m2, and the breeding stage can reach 7/m2, which has certain market competitiveness. In the past few years, a combination of fermentation bed and online farming has emerged in Shandong and other regions, namely the online bed-out mode, which can solve the problem of clearing manure. In the past two years, Anhui Qiangying and Yike Group have pioneered the industry and promoted and applied the multi-layer stereo cage mode of meat ducks in production. What is the application prospect of this model? The author recently made a special trip to Shandong Xintai Tianxin Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Development Co., Ltd. to conduct an on-site inspection of the model.
In the poultry farming industry, laying hens, meat pigeons, and broiler chicken cages are not new, but meat duck cages are still the latest models and technologies. Due to previous successful precedents, companies that have just tested water are also in the exploration stage. . This seemingly beautiful new technology has many problems that need to be solved in the eyes of professionals. Dr. Su Zhenhuan of Yike Group pointed out that there are several major problems in the current breeding of meat ducks: First, the investment is large, the investment of 30,000/dong duck house infrastructure and cages is 1.2 million, and the investment cost of single duck is about 40 yuan; Second, the treatment of manure and resources is difficult, the amount of meat duck waste is large, difficult to separate, and there is no mature solution; the third is that the upstream and downstream disease prevention and control and aquaculture management techniques are not matched, and the potential breeding risk is high; There are few technical and managerial talents, both intelligent and mechanized, and there is a lack of compound talents for large-scale meat duck farming management. Fifth, the profit model remains unresolved, and high productivity, high risk, and low talents, although productivity Enhance, how is the production relationship matched? Sixth, the operating cost is high. Except for the single drug and labor cost, the other costs are high. Seventh, the infrastructure and cage design are poorly mature, and the basic data of meat and duck physiology and behavior are lacking.
In fact, there are many technical bottlenecks that need to be broken in the promotion and application of any new technology. This is especially true for meat ducks. Before this model has been accepted by the industry, many important links need to be penetrated. Under the realistic background of the increasing automation of poultry farming, the road to facilityized duck farming will become wider and wider. In the author's view, the meat duck cage is a promising development direction: the equipment investment cost is high, the equipment maturity is poor, and it can be reduced through experts in the fields of construction, environmental control, animal husbandry, animal husbandry and veterinary, etc. Equipment manufacturing costs, reasonable reduction of the cost of a single duck, continuous improvement of the upgraded cage equipment; the difficulty of manure disposal, can start from the source reduction and control, through the improvement of drinking water technology, reduce running, risk, drinking line Drip and leakage phenomenon, reduce the moisture content in duck manure, thus reducing the pressure of post-processing; professional talents lack of problems, you can borrow the stone of other mountains to attack jade, the current professional chickens in the industry, broiler cages Many, there is also a relatively mature technical route, on which basis based on the physiological and behavioral characteristics of the meat duck to improve technical parameters, optimize the production process, achieve efficient production; high investment costs, high risk, unclear profit model The problem can only be solved by strengthening internal risk control, matching productivity and production relations, and benefiting from production and management.